1. The Need for Training and Development
Companies progress by developing their employees’ capabilities and maximising their ability to work effectively. The object of a TPM programme is to build a corporate organisation and culture that continuously evolves in response to changes in the economic environment, technical innovations, the introduction of more advanced equipment, and the development of more up-to-date management practices – and the first essential requirement for this is to have people who are thoroughly conversant with their equipment and competent at their jobs.
If a company wants to put an effective training and development system in place, the first thing it must do is identify the gap between the knowledge and skills it needs and the knowledge and skills it currently possesses. It must then prepare the training materials, systems and facilities required to close that gap. Finally, after implementing the training, it must review the results. The specific procedure for doing this is as follows:
(1) Clarify the business strategy
(2) Sort out what knowledge and skills the company needs (prepare a technology/skill map)
(3) Assess the current situation (identify what training is needed)
(4) Prepare training manuals
(5) Formulate and implement a training plan
(6) Evaluate and certify the training
This chapter focuses on the operating and maintenance skills training that should be
carried out right away, as soon as a TPM programme is started. These methods and approaches can also be used in other situations, Of course, it goes without saying that a training and development programme can only deliver good results if the methods used are tailored to the work responsibilities, abilities, individual characteristics and specific requirements of individual trainees (see Figure 9.1).
2. The Basic Philosophy Behind Training and Development 2.1 What is Skill?
Skill is the ability to do one’s job effectively. As Figure 9.2 illustrates, it has been defined as ‘the ability to continue to act instinctively (i.e. without thinking) and correctly over a sustained time period in relation to various phenomena, based on knowledge acquired’. The quicker a person can discover and solve problems, the more skilled he or she is. Skill can only be developed through training and the systematic acquisition of knowledge and experience. The highest level of skill, or ‘mastery’, is achieved through good training combined with personal motivation, and is what any self-respecting training and development programme should aim at.
2.2 The 5 Steps to Mastery
2.2.1 The 5 Steps
The first step in establishing a training and development programme is to work out what levels of understanding, knowledge and ability each individual needs in order to do his or her job effectively (taking account of forthcoming advances in engineering technology and management technique), and assess the level that individual has currently achieved. Much of the training that companies give their employees is ineffective because it fails to cover the necessary topics as and when needed. It is important to establish a thorough, down-to-earth system of training and development that focuses on improving areas of weakness one step at a time.
The 5 steps to mastery can be classified as follows:
Figure 9.2 What is Skill?
To train individuals effectively, it is first necessary to assess the levels of understanding, technical ability and skill they will need for the types of job they will do and the positions they will occupy, as in the example shown in Figure 9.3. Plans must then be put in place to systematically upgrade their expertise and fill in any gaps. After the skills and level of ability required by each individual have been identified, development targets should be set. The progress of the individual’s training plan should then be monitored, and the degree to which they have improved should be periodically assessed.
Figure 9.3 Example of Skill Assessment
2.3 The Abilities Most Needed in Operators
Apart from being able to operate and adjust their equipment correctly, operators need to be fully capable of:
2.3.1 Detecting problems with the equipment and carrying out continuous improvement
Specifically, they must:
- Be able to detect problems with their machinery.
- Understand the importance of lubrication, and know how to lubricate their
equipment correctly and check the results.
- Understand the importance of checking through cleaning and know how to do it
- Understand the importance of localising the spattering of coolant, swarm or other
debris, and be able to do the necessary improvements.
- Be able to restore or improve their machines to eliminate faults that they
themselves have discovered.
2.3.2 Understanding the structure and functions of their machinery, and discovering the root causes of abnormalities
Specifically, they must:
- Understand which parts of their machines they must pay particular attention to.
- Be able to clean and check their machines properly in order to maintain their
- Understand the criteria for deciding whether or not something is wrong.
- Understand the root causes of abnormalities.
- Be able to make sound judgements about whether or not to stop the machinery
when problems are found.
- Be able to diagnose breakdowns to some extent.
2.3.3 Understanding the relationship between machinery and quality, and foreseeing and detecting quality problems
Specifically, they must:
- Be able to do a physical analysis of problem phenomena.
- Understand the relationships between machinery and quality characteristics.
- Understand the range within which the static and dynamic precision of
machinery must be maintained, and be able to check these.
- Understand the root causes of quality defects
2.3.4 Carrying out repairs
Specifically, they must be able to:
- Replace parts.
- Estimate how much longer parts will last for.
- Work out the root causes of breakdowns.
- Install temporary solutions to problems.
- Assist with overhauls.
2.3.5 Doing Focused Improvements on suitable topics, either independently or with other departments
Specifically, they must:
- Be concerned about avoiding waste, and be able to reduce the time taken for
cleaning, lubricating, checking, changeovers, and adjustments.
- Be able to carry out improvements to extend the life of machine parts.
- Be able to predict breakdowns and minor stops, and carry out improvements to
- Be able to carry out improvements to extend the life of cutting tools and reduce
cutting-tool replacement losses.
- Be able to carry out improvements to reduce speed losses.
- Be able to carry out improvements to reduce quality defects.
- Be able to improve methods and procedures.
- Be able to improve the safety of work and machinery.
These skills are developed through participation in Autonomous Maintenance, Focused Improvement and Quality Maintenance, eventually leading to operators knowing their equipment so well that its operation and maintenance become second nature to them.
2.4 The Abilities Most Needed in Maintenance Staff
Maintenance personnel need to be able to do the following:
- Instruct operators in daily maintenance and the correct handling of machinery.
- Know when something is not right with the equipment.
- Investigate the root causes of problems and solve them correctly by the most
- Increase the reliability of machines and components, make them last longer, and minimise the rate of occurrence of breakdowns and other such problems (i.e. extend the MTBF, or mean time between failures).
- Increase equipment maintainability (e.g. by making it possible to replace complete units instead of individual parts) in order to minimise the time spent on repairs (i.e. reduce the MTTR, or mean time to repair).
- Acquire and apply diagnostic techniques and develop standardised ways of using them.
- Optimise all of these activities and maximise their cost benefits.
As production equipment becomes increasingly sophisticated and levels of automation rise, maintenance personnel become more and more extensively involved with programmes for enhancing safety, preventing pollution, saving energy and so forth, in addition to their normal maintenance duties. This makes it essential for any company to define the technical skills it needs, establish effective development and training curricula, and systematically implement internal and external training programmes closely tailored to its requirements.
3. A 6-Step Training and Development Programme
To ensure effective skills improvement, it is recommended that the training and development programme be rolled out in accordance with the six steps shown in Figure 9.4.
3.1 Step 1: Decide on Strategic Thrusts Based on Evaluation of Current Training and Development
Every business carries out training and development in one form or another. However, to become an organisation of individuals who fulfil their particular roles highly professionally and know far more about their equipment than their counterparts at rival companies, it is essential to design and implement a training and development programme that exactly suits the company’s needs. The first step in doing this is to assess the current situation and work out what the training and development programme’s basic policy, goals and strategic thrusts should be (see Figure 9.5).
Figure 9.5 An Example of a Training and Development Programme’s Basic Policy, Goals and Strategic Thrusts
‘The basic policy for training and development in our factory is that improving everyone’s individual abilities helps to improve the company’s business results, as well as giving people a sense of pride and achievement in their work and daily lives. We will use on-the-job training and self-development, in conjunction with off-the- job training, to actively raise our levels of expert skills.’
1. Use the TPM programme to develop people who are highly competent at handling their equipment and performing administrative tasks.
2. Develop people capable of responding to the needs of the workplace over the long term.
To achieve these goals, we will review our existing training and implement the following strategic thrusts:
1. Develop people who understand their equipment extremely well
- Enable maintenance staff to acquire even greater skills and analytical strengths.
- Establish maintenance training curricula, and teach operators to know their equipment intimately.
- Develop specialised skills by sending people on courses run by outside organisations such as the JIPM.
2. Develop people who can perform their administrative duties extremely well • Roll out the Autonomous Maintenance steps and give training in
automated office systems.
3. Establish skill upgrade programmes
Identify essential core skills in order to systematically develop people with a high level of competence in handling their equipment and performing administrative tasks.
The next step is to determine what kinds of people and skills the company’s business policies and strategies require, put together training and development plans, and create systems for monitoring progress against those plans and the results achieved.
The human resources and skills a company needs should be examined in the light of the systems and equipment in its factories, its business processes, and the organisation and business model by which it operates. It is generally sufficient for people in leadership positions to conduct a review based on this information, and identify the necessary work skills. The CUDBAS method described in Section 4.2 is available if a more detailed analysis is required.
3.2 Step 2: Set up Training and Development Systems for Improving Operating and Maintenance Skills
Unattended operation is becoming more and more prevalent on the production floor owing to modern advances in robotisation, numerical control and automation. Many firms are endeavouring to hire and train engineers and specialists with strong technical skills and abilities in mechatronics and machinery in order to cope with this trend, but it is not something that can be done overnight. It is particularly important to have an effective training and development programme for giving operators and maintenance personnel at every level a high degree of competence in equipment systems. The kind of programme shown in Figure 9.6 should be developed in tandem with the company’s equipment environment as part of its overall training and development system.
Figure 9.6 A Typical Training and Development Programme
Figure 9.7 A Typical Maintenance Skills Training System
3.3 Step 3: Upgrade Operating and Maintenance Skills
3.3.1 Linkage of training to work
Skills can be mastered much more effectively if learning opportunities are linked directly to what people actually do at their places of work, as illustrated in Figure 9.8.
Figure 9.8 How Maintenance Skills Training Can be Linked to Work
The purpose of technical training is to upgrade the skills of operators and maintenance personnel in response to modern advances in automation, mechatronics, etc. and develop people with a sound understanding of the equipment they are responsible for.
3.3.3 Practical agenda
(1) Develop instructors to teach maintenance skills
• Select key maintenance personnel and shop-floor leaders, and develop them into instructors by sending them on external or internal maintenance skills courses.
(2) Upgrade operators’ operating skills
- Carry out training to improve operators’ basic operating skills.
- Carry out training to improve changeover, adjustment, tool replacement and other skills as required.
(3) Train operators in maintenance skills
- Train operating team leaders in maintenance skills, using in-house instructors.
- Having received the training, the leaders then train the members of their ownteams (‘relay teaching’).
- The team leaders prepare collections of one-point lessons, cutaway models, etc.as teaching materials for use in teaching the operators
(4) Upgrade maintenance personnel’s skills
- Train all maintenance personnel in maintenance skills, using in-house instructors.
- Encourage them to acquire a nationally recognised maintenance skills qualification.
Chapter 9. Education and Training. Part 2