Chapter 3. Getting Ready for TPM

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1. Getting Ready for TPM

Once an organisation’s senior management has taken the decision to introduce TPM, it is likely to want to get going straight away. However, developing a TPM programme and implementing the five main pillars takes time and thorough planning. Although the time required for the introductory orientation will depend on the size of the organisation, three to six months are usually required to provide all employees, including senior managers, with sufficient basic knowledge about the programme to ensure its successful implementation. This preliminary, introductory stage of TPM is vitally important – just as important, in fact, as the planning and design stages are to releasing a new product. The successful launch of a new product or a new activity depends crucially on how well the planning and design are carried out.

TPM is a never-ending journey, but even programmes that go on indefinitely need targets and deadlines, or they will lack a sense of purpose, lose momentum, and end up not being very effective. When running a TPM programme, therefore, it is a good idea to plan it in three-year chunks, establishing a site or company vision and goals for each three-year period and cascading these down to individual workplaces. One of the key issues in doing this is how to translate the site’s or company’s business objectives into action targets. Other questions include what improvement topics to select, how to implement the improvement programme, and what deadlines to set.

Before officially kicking off its TPM programme, any site or company should complete the preparatory steps (Steps 1-5) of the 12-Step TPM Development Programme shown in Table 3.1. The most important thing is to establish objectives that clearly show what the programme is aiming for and why it is being carried out. This is essential in order to ensure that the TPM programme does not become TPM for its own sake. When top management declares its commitment to introducing TPM (in Step 1), it should make sure that it clearly explains the programme’s purpose. Then (in Step 2), publicity campaigns and orientation sessions are held to make sure everyone knows what the TPM campaign is all about, and get them ready to join in. The last part of the preparation phase is to plan the means by which the business objectives will be achieved (this is the main focus of Steps 3-5). In these steps, the business objectives are developed into action targets, an organisation is set up to drive the activities towards achieving those targets, and timescales are established. Steps 3-5 are extremely important preparatory steps that are key to the success or failure of the TPM programme.

This chapter describes each of the five preparatory steps in more detail, and also gives some advice on the Kick-Off (Step 6), rolling out Focused Improvement (Step 7-1) and rolling out Autonomous Maintenance (Step 7-2).

2. Step 1 : Top Management Declares its Commitment to Introducing TPM

2.1 Aims

It is essential for top management itself to announce to the entire workforce its decision to introduce TPM, so that everyone can understand the purpose of the TPM programme, know what the company’s management is thinking and what is expected of them, and mentally prepare themselves to start working with TPM.

2.2 Actions

  • Top management itself announces that it has decided to introduce TPM. This should be done at board meetings, department meetings and so on.
  • TPM presentations are organised, at which top management explains to middle management its decision to introduce TPM.
  • Top management’s decision to introduce TPM is publicised in in-house journals and similar literature.

2.3 Key Points

  • Although TPM is an enterprise-wide programme that should be introduced throughout the entire organisation, it is best for large companies with many operating divisions and sites to start by selecting a limited number of these to model the programme, rolling it out to the whole organisation later on.
  • Even when only a few operating divisions or sites are introducing TPM initially, the company’s CEO should still announce the decision to introduce TPM and make sure all employees know how committed he or she is to it.

2.4 Senior Managers’ Roles

  • If it is the senior managers of an operating division or site who have decided to introduce TPM, they should explain its aims and benefits to the company’s CEO and convert him or her to the TPM cause.
  • Senior managers should never delegate their announcement of the decision to introduce TPM; they should always do it themselves.
  • Senior managers should accept that it takes time and money to change people and equipment through TPM.

3. Step 2 : A Publicity Campaign is Mounted, and TPM Orientation Sessions are Held

3.1 Aims

TPM aims to improve the entire organisation by improving its people and its equipment. The purpose of the publicity campaign and orientation sessions conducted for each grade of employee at Step 2 is to make sure everyone knows what TPM is about, introduce them to the language of TPM, and motivate them to take up the TPM challenge.

3.2 Actions
3.2.1 Publicity campaign

Posters, slogans and other media are used to publicise the introduction of TPM.

3.2.2 Orientation sessions

The following types of orientation session should be held for people at the different levels of the organisation:

• Senior managers of department-manager level and above: attend external TPM conferences, executives’ TPM study tours, etc.

• Area managers, supervisors, etc.: attend TPM Instructor Course.

• Technical staff, shift leaders, team leaders, etc.: attend in-house courses organised by qualified TPM Instructors (TPM Instructor Course graduates).

• Ordinary employees: Learn from TPM videos or CD-ROMs, or receive instruction from people who have attended in-house TPM courses.

3.3 Key Points

  • The TPM programme will not take off just because senior management has announced it. It will only get going when sufficient teaching and training has taken place.
  • Introductory teaching and training should not be confined to the production department alone; Research and Development, Design, Production Engineering, Sales, Purchasing, Financial, Personnel, General Affairs and other departments should also receive it and should get involved in the TPM programme along with the production department.

3.4 Senior Managers’ Roles

  • Provide the necessary funds for the introductory teaching and training.
  • Take the lead in receiving the teaching and training themselves.
  • Ensure that people at every level of the company organisation receive the teaching and training, and keep an eye on how it is getting on.

4. Step 3 : The Site’s Basic TPM Policy and Targets are Set

4.1 Aims

TPM should be integral to the company’s policy and should feature in its medium and long-term business plans. TPM targets should be included in the list of annual business targets, and the TPM programme should be promoted within the company’s management-by-objectives and policy deployment systems.

4.2 Actions

  1. Integrate TPM into the company’s basic policy and its medium and long-term business plans, and make sure everyone knows about it.
  2. Establish a clear vision of where the company wants each of its working levels to be in three to five years’ time, decide what approaches and priorities are required to get there (this will consist mainly of implementing the 5 basic TPM pillars), and set targets. It is vital to make sure that everyone in the company understands and accepts what needs to be done.
  3. Predict the time needed to reach the level of eligibility for being audited for the Award for TPM Excellence, and set TPM targets to be achieved by that time (specific, measurable targets such as OEEs, reduction in number of failures, and so on).
  4. Measure the current values for each of the items targeted, and use these values as a starting-point against which to measure progress.
  5. Compare the current values of the items targeted with the values required for the Award for TPM Excellence in order to work out the value of achieving them and estimate their cost-benefits.

4.3 Key Points

(1) As long as a company is implementing TPM, it should do its level best to get good results and win a TPM Prize. However, it should remember that winning an award is a means to an end, not an end in itself, and that achieving better and better business results is the primary objective.

(2) The TPM targets to be achieved by the time of the audit should be ambitious and challenging. The aim is to go for the ultimate in indicators such as reductions in breakdowns and defect rates, and increases in added-value productivity.

(3) It is also important to interest and motivate employees, and let people outside the company know what is going on, by devising and publicising a good TPM slogan.

4.4 Senior Managers’ Roles

(1) Coordinate the TPM activities and targets with the company’s basic policy and its medium and long-term business plans, and manage the associated costs.

(2) Confirm that the TPM policies and targets have been cascaded down to the lower levels of the organisation and are being satisfactorily applied.

5 Step 4: A TPM Promotion Organisation is Established, and Management-Led Pilot Models are Commenced

5.1 Aims

The organisation that drives the TPM programme consists of two main parts; one responsible for the overall coordination of the programme (the TPM Steering Groups, for example) and the other for implementing specific individual activities. The latter is a matrix structure comprising a system of overlapping teams based on the company’s existing organisational structure (the vertical lines of the matrix), managed by cross- functional bodies such as the Focused Improvement Subcommittee and various project teams (the horizontal lines of the matrix).

When planning the promotion organisation, the following two important points should be borne in mind:

  1. Clearly define the scope of the programme.
  2. Indicate what activities are to be carried out within that scope.

In short, having developed the business objectives into action targets, we define the territory the programme needs to cover in order to achieve those targets, and decide on the main activities, or ‘pillars’, required within that territory. This decision will naturally determine the way in which the activities are structured. The TPM promotion organisation should be designed to suit the needs of the business, never those of TPM itself.

Finally, having designed the various parts of the organisation and set them up, we must decide who is to be responsible for each, and what their roles should be.

5.2 Actions

    1. When the TPM programme is being rolled out across an entire company or organisation, a company wide TPM Steering Committee should be constituted to oversee the promotion of the TPM initiative over the organisation as a whole.
    2. Each business division and site should also set up its own TPM Steering Committee.
    3. Each TPM committee should have a TPM Promotion Office with full-time staff.
    4. Separate sub-committees should be established as required (e.g. Publicity, Training, Focused Improvement, Autonomous Maintenance, Effective Maintenance, Early Management, etc.), and separate Focused Improvement project teams should also be formed.

One of TPM’s most distinctive features is the way in which activities are carried out by self-directed teams built into the regular company hierarchy. These teams are usually led by line leaders, supervisors and other front-line people in positions of responsibility.

5.3 Key Points

(1) Until TPM has become the company’s normal way of working, a permanent body
such as the TPM Promotion Office, staffed by full-time employees with
responsibility for driving the TPM programme, must be established.
(2) All heads of department should sit on the TPM Steering Committee.
(3) The success of the TPM programme will depend very much on the quality of the
TPM Steering Committee chairperson and the TPM Promotion Office staff, so care
should be taken to make sure the right people are chosen for the job.

5.4 Senior Managers’ Roles

(1) The most important role of senior management at this stage is to create the
organisation that will drive the TPM programme and appoint the people who will
staff it.
(2) Senior managers should sit on the Steering Committee and actively lead the
discussions.

Table 3.9 Organisational Roles and Responsibilities (Example)

Title

Composition

Aims

Responsibilities

Meeting Frequency

Company TPM Steering Committee

Chair: CEO Members: Directors, Factory General Managers, TPM Managers

Systematically drive the company’s TPM programme

  1. Set basic company policy and targets
  2. Form companywide project teams
  3. Monitor progress and provide advice and guidance
  4. Approve action plans
  5. Decide how to deal with problems

1/month

Factory TPM Steering Committee

Chair: Factory General Manager Members: Department Managers, TPM Manager or TPM Office staff

Systematically drive the factory’s TPM programme

  1. Set basic factory policy and targets
  2. Formulate factory TPM Master Plan
  3. Form factory wideproject teams
  4. Monitor progressand provide adviceand guidance
  5. Decide how to dealwith problems

1/month

Department TPM Meetings (Leaders’ Meetings)

Leader: Production Department Manager Members: Area Managers, supervisors, maintenance staff

Systematically drive Autonomous Maintenance and Focused Improvement

  1. Formulate Autonomous Maintenance and Focused Improvement implementation plans and monitor progress
  2. Define problems and coach teams
  3. Form Focused Improvement project teams

1/month

Area TPM Meetings (Leaders’ Meetings)

Leader: Area Manager Members: Supervisors

Systematically drive Autonomous Maintenance and Focused Improvement

  1. Formulate AutonomousMaintenance and Focused Improvement implementation plans, and monitor progress
  2. Define problems and coach teams

1/month

Focused Improvement Subcommittee

Chair: Production Engineering Department Manager Members: Production Engineering staff

Create efficient lines by eliminating the 16 Big Losses

  1. Advise on how to carry out Focused Improvement
  2. Advise on how to replicate improvements in other areas
  3. Facilitate standardisation and information exchange

1/month

Autonomous Maintenance Subcommittee

Chair: Factory General Manager Members: Factory Production Managers or area managers

Develop equipment- competent operators

  1. Find out about, and advise on, implementing the Autonomous Maintenance steps
  2. Coordinate management pilot models
  3. Facilitate standardisation and information exchange

1/month

Effective Maintenance Subcommittee

Chair: Maintenance Manager
Members: Maintenance supervisors

Go for zero breakdowns Improve maintenance efficiency

  1. Study step-by-step development of Effective Maintenance programme
  2. Advise on how to carry out Effective Maintenance
  3. Advise on how to replicate improvements in other areas
  4. Facilitatestandardisation and information exchange

1/month

Early Management Subcommittee

Chair: Technical Development Manager
Members: Research and Development managers and supervisors, Production Engineering staff

Develop system for right-first- time vertical startup

  1. Study examples of Early Management
  2. Review the existing system
  3. Standardise

1/month

Quality Maintenance Subcommittee

Chair: Quality Manager Members: Quality Assurance staff, Production Engineering staff, production supervisors

Establish zero- defect lines

  1. Investigate available techniques
  2. Advise on how to implement Quality Maintenance
  3. Advise on methods of replicating improvements in other areas
  4. Facilitate standardisation and information exchange

1/month

Administrative Improvement Subcommittee

Chair: Administrative and Support Department Manager Members: administrative and support department staff

Create workplaces with high levels of administrative efficiency

  1. Find out how to develop a step-by- step programme
  2. Advise on how to carry out administrative Focused Improvements
  3. Advise on how to replicate improvements in other areas
  4. Facilitate standardisation and information exchange

1/month

Training and Development Subcommittee

Chair: Personnel Manager Members: Staff from each area

Improve maintenance skills
Improve management skills
Improve technical skills

  1. Draw up a Training and Development plan
  2. Monitor progress and consider problems

1/month

TPM Promotion Office

Chair: TPM Manager Members: Chairpersons of Subcommittees, TPM Office staff

Manage the TPM programme efficiently

  1. Draw up TPM promotion plans
  2. Propose facilities for keeping TPM programme energised
  3. Consider, coordinate and advise on problems encountered by Pillar Subcommittees

Whenever necessary

6. Step 5 : The TPM Master Plan is prepared

6.1 Aims

The TPM programme should be implemented on the basis of a Master Plan covering the entire period from preparing to introduce TPM to receiving the audit for the TPM award. The Master Plan should clearly demonstrate the intention of the company to reach the award level by the audit year and the steps it will take to get there.

6.2 Actions

(1)Create overall schedules (called Master Plans) showing what will be done at each step of the 12-Step TPM Implementation Programme, with particular emphasis on what will be done about each of the five basic pillars in the introductory stages. Separate schedules should be prepared for the company as a whole and for individual business divisions and operating sites.

(2)Each department, section and team within an operating site should then prepare a detailed schedule of its own activities in accordance with the site’s master plan.

(3)Track performance against the Master Plan every year to check progress, and alter the plan as and when necessary.

6.3 Key Points

(1) It usually takes from three to six months to prepare to introduce TPM, and a further three to four years to fully implement it. When drawing up a Master Plan, remember that TPM is designed to revolutionise the company’s culture, as well as its equipment and production systems, so it is bound to take time for the necessary changes to take place and the results to feed through.

(2) Prepare manuals for all the pillars clearly explaining how they should be progressed.

(3) Hold regular TPM meetings every month to monitor the progress of the activities and expedite them as necessary.

6.4 Senior Managers’ Roles

(1) Check the Master Plan (prepared by the TPM Promotion Office) carefully to ensure it is appropriate.

(2) Ensure that detailed schedules for each department, section and team have been prepared in line with the Master Plan, and monitor progress against these.

7. Step 6 : The TPM Programme Is Officially Kicked Off

7.1 Aims

Once all the preparations are in place, a kick-off ceremony should be held. The aim of the day is to announce to all employees that the TPM programme is now officially commencing, and the drive to eliminate the 8 Big Equipment Losses (and ultimately all 16 major losses) is under way. The idea is to get every single employee to buy into senior management’s ideas and motivate them to become fully engaged in going for the ultimate attainable goals.

7.2 Actions

(1) Arrange a suitable event that will achieve the aims stated above. Customers, suppliers

and affiliates should be invited.

(2) Some examples of the kinds of presentation that can be made at the event are:

-Reaffirmation of senior management’s decision to introduce TPM

-Explanation of TPM promotion organisation, basic TPM policy, targets, and TPM Master Plan

-Declaration by employee representative of the intention to mount a challenge for the TPM Prize

-Speeches of encouragement by guests

7.3 Key Points

(1) Make sure the union is on board before organising the event.

(2) Complete the introductory TPM education of all employees before the kick-off day.

7.4 Senior Managers’ Roles

(1) Give careful thought to the events that will take place on the kick-off day.

(2) Be present at the kick-off and publicly reaffirm the company’s commitment to the TPM programme.

(3) Tour the production floor and ask front-line operators directly if they understand what TPM is for.

Figure 3.5 Examples of TPM’s Tangible and Intangible Benefits

Tangible Benefits

Intangible Benefits

Productivity ………………………… 1.5 – 2 x

  • −  No. of sporadic breakdowns …1/250 – 1/290
  • −  OEE …………………………..1.5 – 2 x

1 People become self-directing; i.e. they start to look after their own equipment without having to be reminded to.

Quality

  • −  In-process defect rate …………1/10
  • −  Customer complaints …………1/4 – 0

2 Breakdowns and quality problems disappear, and people become confident that they can achieve their goals if they try.

Cost
− Production cost …………….. -30% – 50%

3 Work areas that used to be filthy, oily and unpleasant undergo a transformation, and become clean, bright and cheerful.

Delivery Performance
− Product inventory ……………. 1/2

4 Visitors to the plant are impressed, the company’s image improves, and more orders are received.

Safety

  • −  LTAs ………………………….. 0
  • −  Environmental incidents ……… 0

8. Step 7.1 : Focused Improvement is Rolled Out

8.1 Aims

The purpose of this step is to form a project team drawn from production engineers, maintenance staff, line managers and line team members to work on a machine or part of a production line as a pilot model, and to demonstrate the efficacy of TPM by raising efficiency through Focused Improvement.

8.2 Actions

  1. When selecting the pilot model, choose a piece of equipment that suffers from chronic losses and appears likely to yield significant results if exposed to about three months of intensive improvement activity.
  2. When selecting the improvement topic to be addressed, survey the eight major equipment losses (shutdown, breakdowns, setup and adjustment, cutting tool replacement, startup and shutdown, minor stops and idling, speed losses, and defects/rework) together with human resources and material/energy utilisation losses, and target the losses that the business most needs to eliminate.
  3. Form a number of project teams, each of which addresses a particular topic. This will enable production engineers, maintenance staff and others to learn how to do Focused Improvements as well as demonstrating the good results achievable. Then roll the improvements made to the pilot model machines out to other machines and allow small teams formed in all parts of the organisation to begin improving their own equipment.
  4. When conducting Focused Improvements, make good use of all available techniques (industrial engineering, value engineering, quality control, reliability engineering and so on). One reliability engineering method that has proved very powerful for eliminating chronic equipment losses is P-M Analysis, which is described in further detail in Chapter 4 (Focused Improvement).

8.3 Key Points

(1) Only designate one pilot model machine for each area of the factory. Do not try to do too many at once.

(2) It is best if at least one member of each project team is familiar with P-M Analysis.

8.4 Senior Managers’ Roles

  1. Advice on selecting model machines and choosing topics to tackle.
  2. Arrange for Focused Improvements to be presented to the TPM Steering Committee, and make constructive comments.
  3. Learn to use the various improvement techniques available, and advise on their application.

9 Step 7.2 : Autonomous Maintenance is Rolled Out

9.1 Aims

The aim of this step is to ensure that every single operator takes on board the basic concept of Autonomous Maintenance, namely that operators look after their own machines. Every individual operator must acquire the knowledge and skills needed to do this effectively.

9.2 Actions

The Autonomous Maintenance programme is developed in a progression of distinct steps. The teams study and implement the steps one by one, and are required to pass a management review at the end of each step before being allowed to proceed to the next.

  1. Step 1 (Initial cleaning) consists of finding and correcting faults while getting the equipment clean, and learning that ‘cleaning is inspection’.
  2. Step 2 (Contamination sources and hard-to-access areas)) starts with devising ways of preventing the equipment from getting dirty again, and goes on to look at shortening cleaning and lubricating times by making improvements to hard-to-access areas.
  3. Step 3 (Provisional Autonomous Maintenance standards) is where operators themselves formulate the standards they need to follow to keep the equipment in good order.
  4. Step 4 (General Inspection) is a big step in which operators are trained in the various equipment systems they have to deal with (such as fasteners, filter/regulator/lubricator sets, and so on) and restore their equipment to ideal condition by performing a comprehensive inspection in each category and rectifying anything they find that is not quite perfect.
  5. Step 5 (Autonomous inspection) is where the operators autonomously inspect their own equipment in accordance with the standards they have developed in order to keep it in perfect condition.
  6. Step 6 (Standardisation) consists of establishing and maintaining the conditions that must be observed for total control of the workplace.
  7. Step 7 (Full self- management) is the step that brings all the other steps together, where the operators autonomously maintain and continually improve their own equipment and ways of working.

9.3 Key Points

  1. Steps 1 through 4 are the basic steps in which the greatest changes to the working culture and the equipment take place. If these steps are done properly, with sufficient patience and attention to detail, good results are guaranteed.
  2. At all costs avoid Autonomous Maintenance turning into a cosmetic exercise in which people paint the aisles and the equipment to make them look nice while ignoring sources of dust, dirt, rust and oil leaks.

9.4 Senior Managers’ Roles

  1. Check that effective action is being taken to rectify faults and eliminate sources of contamination and hard-to-access areas.
  2. Actively recognise and encourage people for coming up with good ideas and useful improvements.
  3. Conduct periodic senior-management reviews (in addition to the Autonomous Maintenance step reviews).Further details on Focused Improvement, Autonomous Maintenance and the other six TPM pillars will be found in the relevant chapters.

The 7 Steps of Autonomous Maintenance

Step

Name

Activities

1

Initial cleaning (cleaning is inspection)

Eliminate dust and dirt from main body of equipment, lubricate and tighten, expose and deal with equipment problems

2

Contamination sources and hard-to-access areas

Reduce housekeeping time by eliminating or containing sources of dust, dirt or other contamination, and improving places that are hard to clean, lubricate, tighten or check

3

Provisional Autonomous Maintenance standards

Formulate provisional standards to enable cleaning, lubricating, tightening and checking to be sustained dependably with minimal time and effort (this will mean establishing time slots for routine and periodic maintenance)

4

General equipment inspection

Training operators in inspection procedures using inspection manuals, enabling them to expose and correct equipment defects by performing comprehensive equipment inspections

5

Autonomous inspection

Formulate definitive cleaning, lubrication and inspection standards that can be followed efficiently and dependably; draw up autonomous inspection checklists and put them into use

6

Standardisation

Develop a comprehensive housekeeping system by devising additional standards for items such the following:

  • Movement of materials around the shop floor
  • Data recording
  • Control of moulds, jigs, tools, etc.
  • Quality assurance data on the process

7

Full self-management

Roll out and implement company policies and objectives, and continually improve the equipment by keeping accurate MTBF and other maintenance records, analysing the data captured, and doing improvements as a routine part of the job

Chapter 4. Focused Improvement. Part 1

 

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