Chapter 1. TPM – An Overview.

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1. Introduction to TPM

The abbreviation TPM stands for ‘Total Productive Maintenance’ or ‘Total Productive Manufacturing’, where the word ‘total’ implies ‘total participation’ – in other words, everyone in the company, from CEO to senior management to front-line operators, playing an active role in productive maintenance.

TPM: Total Productive Maintenance

The term TPM has now become even more all-embracing, and is often used to denote ‘Total Productive Management’, or even ‘Totally Perfect Manufacturing’.

1.1. Why TPM Now?

There are some very cogent reasons why companies need TPM now, namely:

  • The business environment has become increasingly unforgiving, and companies must eliminate all forms of waste in order to survive. They can no longer get away with allowing expensive equipment to break down.
  • The demands on quality are more exacting than ever, and even a single defective item in a batch is no longer permissible. Companies are now expected to guarantee the quality of every single item they deliver.
  • The diversification of consumer requirements has increased the demand for high variety, small-lot production and shorter delivery times. This has made businesses keenly aware of the need to eliminate the 8 Big Equipment Losses, and of the effectiveness of TPM as a survival strategy.
  • Companies can no longer beat off the competition purely by making their production operations more efficient.
  • At one time, they could sell whatever they made. Now, they have to make only what they can sell. This means that, as explained in Table 1.6 (TPM – A Conceptual Guide), in addition to eliminating the 16 Big Losses relating to equipment, resource consumption and human labour, they must also generate profits by strengthening (and improving collaboration among) all of the departments concerned with any of the processes involved in planning and developing the product, manufacturing it, and delivering it to the customer – including product planning, research, development, design, technology, purchasing, sales, and distribution, as well as the production department itself.

Businesses know they need a new type of TPM if they want to stay on the map.

1.2. The Relationship between Production Inputs and Outputs

maximizing equipment efficiency means maximizing its productivity – that is, achieving the greatest possible output (results) with the least possible input (costs). In other words, it means maximizing the equipment’s cost-effectiveness.

Production equipment has become more and more important as production systems have become increasingly mechanised and automated. The message has changed from ‘build quality into the product by means of the process’, to ‘build quality into the product by means of the equipment’.

Value A < Value B
Productivity = Output/Input = B/A (Equipment is the most important element in the production system)

To reduce Value A, best use must be made of all available management techniques to eliminate the 16 Big Production Losses and maximise the efficient use of equipment, labour and resources.

1.3 How the Production Losses are Structured

In TPM, we maximise the efficiency of our production operations by identifying and eliminating sixteen major production losses (the 16 Big Losses) that drive down efficiency.

Here is a list of the 16 Big Losses:

1.3.1 The 8 Big Losses Impeding Equipment Effectiveness and Utilisation

(1) The 7 Big Losses Impeding Equipment Effectiveness

Downtime losses

  • Breakdown loss
  • Setup and adjustment loss
  • Cutting tool replacement loss
  • Startup loss
  • Other downtime losses – management loss (due to waiting for instructions,materials, people, quality checks, measurement, adjustment, etc.)Performance losses
  • Minor stops and idling loss
  • Speed lossQuality defect losses

• Quality defect and rework loss

(2) The 1 Big Loss Impeding Equipment Utilisation
• Shutdown loss – the time lost when the plant is deliberately shut down for reasons such as planned maintenance, insufficient demand for the product, not enough people to operate the plant, or no raw materials available (when known in advance and built into the production plan).

1.3.2 The 5 Big Losses Impeding Labour Effectiveness

(1) Work-related losses

  • Management loss due to waiting for instructions, materials, etc.
  • Motion loss due to breakdowns, poor machine performance, etc.due to poor methods/procedures, or low skill/morale

(2) Organisational losses

  • Line organisation loss due to poor allocation of personnel due to failure to automate (non-automation loss)
  • Logistics loss due to inefficient handling and conveying

(3) Quality losses

  • Measurement and adjustment loss

1.3.3 The 3 Big Losses Impeding Resource Consumption Effectiveness

  • Yield loss due to quality defects, wasteful cutting, startup waste, attrition, excess material, giveaway, etc.
  • Energy loss
  • Consumables loss (die, tool and jig loss)

1.3.4 Losses in the Extended Supply Chain

In the first level of TPM (Level 1), we focus on eliminating the 16 Big Losses.

In TPM Level 2, as well as continuing our Level 1 activities, we strive to eliminate all other kinds of losses inherent in the management of our production operation, e.g.:

  • Lost opportunities and finished-product inventory losses due to poor coordination between sales and production.
  • Losses due to failure to achieve new-product target costs, emanating from the design and development departments.
  • Losses due to over-buying or failure to achieve target purchasing costs by the purchasing department.

1.4 Automation

Today’s increasing use of industrial robots and automated production systems is changing the nature of the jobs that production operators and maintenance personnel are required to do, and raising the level of skill demanded of them. Companies need to reassess their employees’ skill levels and train them to cope with these changes.

2 Background to TPM

Developed in Japan, TPM is an extension of the concepts of PM (Preventive Maintenance), originally introduced into Japan from the USA.

2.1 How PM Evolved

The ideas and methodology of Preventive Maintenance still form the basis of TPM. American-style Preventive Maintenance developed gradually over the years, and was introduced into Japan in the following forms:

(1) Preventive Maintenance(PM), introduced around 1951, is a system for managing the condition (i.e. the health) of production equipment, and could be called preventive medicine for machinery. It helps to prevent breakdowns and extend the life of machines just like preventive medicine prevents illnesses and extends the lifespan of people.

(2) Corrective Maintenance (CM), introduced around 1957, takes the idea of preventive maintenance a step further, making equipment easier to maintain (increasing its maintainability) and improving it so that breakdowns are not given a chance to occur in the first place (increasing its reliability).

(3) Maintenance Prevention (MP), introduced around 1960, involves designing equipment to be maintenance-free right from the start. This is ideally the way all equipment should be designed.

(4) Productive Maintenance is the catch-all term for activities such as Maintenance Prevention, Preventive Maintenance and Corrective Maintenance carried out over the entire life cycle of the machinery with the aim of maximizing its productivity. Japanese companies added the T (Total) to Productive Maintenance by making it an activity participated in by the entire workforce.

In 1971, Nippon Denso (now just called Denso) was the first company in the world to put TPM into practice. The results were outstanding, and they received a PM Prize (the forerunner of today’s Award for TPM Excellence) for their efforts. That was the start of TPM in Japan. Since then, the Toyota group of companies has been central to the spread of TPM. From the 1980s onward, companies began to focus increasingly on condition based maintenance within their TPM programmes.

3. Features of TPM

3.1 Features of TPM

The three principal features of TPM are:

(1) The pursuit of cost-effectiveness (‘profitable PM’)
(2) A comprehensive system (MP-PM-CM)
(3) Autonomous Maintenance by operators (team activities)

The first of these three features (The pursuit of cost-effectiveness) is common to TPM, Productive Maintenance and Preventive Maintenance; the second (A comprehensive system) is common to both TPM and Productive Maintenance; and the third (Autonomous Maintenance by operators) is unique to TPM. However, the first and second features have not generally been pursued as far as they could be, even at companies practising Productive Maintenance.

3.2 The Definition of TPM

The Definition of TPM (Enterprise-Wide TPM) (Figure 1.11 The Definition of TPM)

TPM is defined as a programme that:

  1. Aims to create a culture and environment that constantly tries to maximize the effectiveness of the entire production system (in other words, to increase its OEE);
  2. Uses a hands-on approach to build a ‘zero accident, zero defect, zero breakdown’system designed to pre-empt losses of all types throughout the life cycle of the production system;
  3. Includes development, sales, administrative and other departments as well as production;
  4. Involves everyone at every level of the organisation, from top management to front-line employees;
  5. Uses overlapping small-group activities to attain the target of zero losses

Let us look at each part of this definition in turn:

(1) Aims to create a culture and environment that constantly tries to maximise the effectiveness of the entire production system (in other words, to increase its OEE);

A production line consisting of a number of individual processes linked together is obviously a production system encompassing those processes. Likewise, a factory consisting of an assemblage of individual production lines is a production system encompassing those lines.

(2) Uses a hands-on approach to build a ‘zero accident, zero defect, zero breakdown’ system designed to pre-empt losses of all types throughout the life cycle of the production system;

Eliminating all kinds of loss by preempting them is central to the TPM philosophy, and one of TPM’s key features is that it adopts an intensely practical, hands-on approach to creating the systems required for doing this.

(3) Includes development, sales, administrative and other departments as well as production;

The production department cannot push the production system to the limit of its efficiency on its own. Clearly, the TPM programme must be rolled out to every department of the company including development, sales and administration.

(4) Involves everyone at every level of the organisation, from top management to front- line employees;

The goals of TPM are to change the way people think and act, to bring the equipment into its optimal state, and, ultimately, to change the very fabric of the company. Although it is essential that every single employee, whatever his or her position in the company hierarchy, plays an active part in the programme, the most important players are those at the top. It is impossible to change the culture of an organisation through TPM without senior management’s firm commitment and enthusiasm right from the start. Another key point is that ‘involves everyone’ means ‘participative management’. TPM is an approach to management that gives everyone a meaningful role and treats them with respect.

(5) Uses overlapping small-group activities to attain the target of zero losses.

TPM is not a bolt-on; it is an essential part of everyone’s job. Teams are set up at each organisational level, and these teams do TPM as an official work activity, eliminating losses by consistently performing their assigned functions. The team leaders at each level will of course be those in official leadership positions within the regular company hierarchy. Developing the programme in this way establishes excellent vertical communication lines; senior management’s policies and objectives cascade right down through the various levels to the front line, while the front line’s suggestions and opinions make their way right to the top.

(6) The ‘T’ in TPM

The ‘T’ in TPM stands for ‘Total’ and has three main implications, as indicated in the definition of TPM:

  1. Total as in ‘total effectiveness’ (maximizing OEE, as in the first part of the definition);
  2. Total as in ‘total life-cycle’ (preempting losses of all types throughout the life cycle of the production system, as in the second part of the definition);
  3. Total as in ‘total organisation’ (including development, sales, administrative and other departments as well as production, as in the third part of the definition);
  4. Total as in ‘total involvement’ (involving everyone at every level, as in the fourth part of the definition).

3.3 The Purpose of TPM

The purpose of TPM is to improve the company by improving its people and its equipment.

‘Improving the company’s people’ means developing their abilities to the point where they can confidently handle the highly automated production systems that are so common today. This means that they must acquire the following abilities:

Operators: Maintenance staff: Production engineers:

The ability to do Autonomous Maintenance
The ability to do advanced, specialised maintenance The ability to plan maintenance-free equipment

The equipment is improved by improving the people who look after it. Improving the equipment has the following two aspects:

  • Raising OEEs by improving the equipment currently in use
  • Designing new equipment for minimum life-cycle cost and ‘vertical startup’TPM aims to improve the company by improving the people, systems and functions of every department including administration, planning, sales, and R & D.As stated earlier, the goal of TPM is to improve the company by improving its people and equipment. Its five basic precepts are as follows:
  1. Build a profitable operation. Make production more economical by eliminating accidents, quality defects and breakdowns.
  2. Practise prevention rather than cure. Practise MP, PM and CM.
  3. Involve everyone (practise participatory management, and treat everyone with respect). Organise the workforce into a pyramid of overlapping small groups, and have operators carry out Autonomous Maintenance.
  4. Use the hands-on, shop-floor approach. Bring the equipment into its ideal state, introduce extensive visual management, and create clean, uncluttered, well-organised workplaces.
  5. Aim for automation and unattended operation. Work towards a shop floor that does not need to be manned by operators.

4. The 8 Pillars of TPM

The complete TPM programme is based on eight major activities, designed to work together to raise efficiency by eliminating the 16 Big Production Losses. These activities are called the ‘8 pillars of TPM’:

  1. Focused Improvement
  2. Autonomous Maintenance
  3. Effective Maintenance (Planned Maintenance)
  4. Training and Development (Education and Training)
  5. Early Management (Early Equipment Management)
  6. Quality Maintenance (Quality)
  7. Administration and Support (Administration)
  8. Safety, Health and Environment

TPM is not just the production department’s responsibility; it must also be driven by everyone in the maintenance department, the production planning department and all other relevant departments, as members either of TPM teams or pillar subcommittees. Contract workers and part-time staff should also support the efficiency drive by getting involved in the TPM programme.

Figure 1.17 gives one example of how the 8 Pillars can be organised, showing the aims of each pillar together with the people responsible and the actions they should undertake. A brief summary of each of the pillars will now be given.

4.1 Focused Improvement

Under the Focused Improvement pillar, projects are prioritized by analyzing the losses generated by each area, line and machine. Improvements are then implemented in accordance with the QC Story format (Select a topic → Ascertain the facts → Set targets → Draw up an activity plan → Analyse the problem and identify the causes → Work out and implement countermeasures → Check the results → Standardize, and establish controls → Review the project and plan what to do next). The topics selected must of course be ones that will help to achieve the objectives and policies of the company, factory, department and area.

4.2 Autonomous Maintenance

In areas containing production equipment, the aim in Autonomous Maintenance is to have each operator look after his or her own machine, performing routine checks, lubricating, replacing parts, doing simple repairs, detecting abnormalities promptly, checking precision and so forth. Even in manual work areas, or departments where there is no production equipment as such, employees should try to improve anything that is not perfect, focusing on cleaning and tidying the work environment (i.e., doing the 5 Ss) and eliminating WUS (waste, unevenness and strain) from work processes and tasks.

4.3 Effective Maintenance (Planned Maintenance)

Establishing a system of effective maintenance is the responsibility of the maintenance department, who, after all, are the maintenance professionals. It includes reducing the number of breakdowns, extending the useful life of machine parts, managing spares, controlling maintenance costs, and doing predictive maintenance.

4.4 Training and Development (Education and Training)

Under the Training and Development pillar, we find out exactly what knowledge and skills the people working in each area need to have in order to get the job done effectively, then assess them against these requirements and give them the necessary training. A common way of achieving this is to set up a maintenance training facility on the shop floor and use it to develop multi-skilled operators who never make operating or repair errors.

4.5 Early Management (Early Equipment Management)

As customers’ requirements continue to diversify, product life-cycles become ever shorter and the competition to develop new products grows more and more intense. It has become vitally important to beat the competition to market with new products, even if only by a little. A company’s success in reducing product launch times by simultaneously developing the equipment needed to produce them (instead of waiting until the product has been developed before starting to develop the equipment) can make or break it.

Having safe, loss-free, reliable, maintenance-friendly and operator-friendly equipment right from the outset will make it possible for the production department to do a far better job. In Early Equipment Management, we try to eliminate design flaws in new or remodelled equipment at the planning, development and design stages, practising MP (maintenance prevention) design with the aim of achieving immediate, problem-free startup (‘vertical startup’). In Early Product Management, we try to shorten development lead times as well as achieving vertical startup. In both cases, it is important to design-in solutions to actual problems experienced in the past as well as conceivable future problems.

4.6 Quality Maintenance (Quality)

Quality Maintenance aims for zero in-process defects and zero customer complaints by setting and maintaining zero-defect conditions (those conditions which, if observed, guarantee perfect product every time). Unlike conventional quality assurance, which employs more and more stringent inspection to try to prevent defectives from passing on to the next process or out of the factory gate, Quality Maintenance tries to prevent defectives from being produced in the first place.

4.7 Administration and Support (Administration)

Under the Administration and Support pillar, we try to raise efficiency and create value through initiatives such as making administrative work more efficient (by means of Office 5 Ss, administrative labour reductions, etc.); reducing losses in purchasing, distribution and warehousing; boosting sales; and introducing CIM (Computer Integrated Manufacturing).

4.8 Safety, Health and Environment

However productive a factory might be, it cannot be called well-run if it has a bad accident record and a poor working environment. TPM has always emphasised the importance of zero accidents and zero pollution, and it needs to be developed further in this direction to give impetus to the drive for zero waste and other environmental improvements.

Figure 1.18 shows the relationships among the 8 pillars. A TPM programme can only be effective if the pillars do not operate in isolation from each other but all work together hand in hand.

5. TPM, JIT and TQM Compared

5.1 Increasing Production Efficiency and the ‘3 Ts’

During the latter part of the 20th century, three principal approaches to increasing production efficiency emerged from Japanese industry and gained worldwide attention. Since they all begin with the letter ‘T’, they became known as the ‘3 Ts’. They are TPS (Toyota Production System), TQM (Total Quality Management), and TPM (Total Productive Maintenance), and their chief features are contrasted below.

(1) TPS (Toyota Production System)

TPS, developed in the 1950s by Toyota, is also known as JIT (Just In Time), the Kanban System, and Stockless Production. It became well-known in industrial circles, first in Japan and then throughout the rest of the world, and many companies ended up introducing it. When academics from MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) in the USA researched the Japanese automobile industry, they found that Toyota and other Japanese automobile manufacturers were using slimmed-down production systems holding as little inventory as possible. They called this approach ‘Lean Production’.

(2) TQM (Total Quality Management)

TQM, a comprehensive management tool in which quality control is extended from the production department to every other department and eventually to every employee, was originally called TQC (Total Quality Control). It was developed by JUSE (Nikka Giren, or the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers) in the 1960s based on SQC (Statistical Quality Control), and became as well-known as TPS throughout Japanese industry thanks to an award system called the Deming Prize. TQM is so widely known both in Japan and abroad that it is hardly necessary to describe it here. TPM arrived on the scene after TPS and TQM, having been developed and disseminated by the JIPM (Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance) since the 1970s.

The striking feature of TPS is its uncompromising approach to the elimination of waste, which is instilled into all Toyota employees as the basis of Toyota’s manufacturing methods. TPS consists of two main pillars, built on a foundation of multi process handling, flow production and zero defects. One of these pillars is JIT (Just-in-Time) production, and the other is automation (the automatic stopping of the line whenever anything goes wrong). For some reason, JIT seems to have become synonymous with TPS.

TPS and TPM have a common philosophy.

Since Denso was a member of the Toyota Group when it became the first company ever to introduce TPM, it had of course already been implementing TPS. TPM was therefore developed on the basis of TPS, so it would be surprising if the two systems did not share the same basic thinking. Table 1.1 shows this common philosophy.

To realise the ultimate goals of TPS (Just-in-Time production, zero stock, and zero defects) a TPM programme that ensures zero minor stops and zero breakdowns on TPS’s ‘automated’ lines is indispensable. TPM is in fact of tremendous benefit to any highly- automated factory implementing JIT.

* ‘Kanban’ is a Japanese word meaning ‘sign’, or ‘notice’. An explanation is given below.
* ‘Andon’ is a Japanese word meaning ‘lantern’. An ‘Andon’ is a kind of traffic signal mounted at a station on an assembly line to tell the line’s supervisors whether the station is keeping up with the flow of production (green), having trouble keeping up (yellow) or has stopped because of some problem (red).

5.2 A Comparison of the Features of TPS, TQM and TPM

Table 1.2 compares the features of TPS, TQM and TPM, but let’s start by looking at their origins. The idea for TPS is said to have come from the way supermarkets are run, where the shelves are continually restocked as the goods are sold. TPS applies this to the factory, restocking each process with the materials needed, when needed, in the exact quantity needed. When the materials necessary for a particular process run out, a ‘kanban’ (a slip detailing the items required, the quantity they are required in, and the process that requires them) is sent to the previous process to get the parts restocked. This is called ‘pull production’, and it is how the Toyota system eliminates the mountains of wasteful in-process stock often seen in conventional production operations.

The origins of TQM and TPM are rather different from that of TPS. TQM evolved in Japan from the discipline of SQC (Statistical Quality Control), which had originally been introduced from the USA, while TPM evolved in a similar way, from Preventive Maintenance and Productive Maintenance.

TPS, TQM and TPM focus on different aspects of the production operation. While TPS concentrates on inventory (D: Delivery), and TQM looks mainly at the quality of products and work (Q: Quality), TPM homes in on equipment, labour and unit consumption losses (C: Cost). The three approaches are somewhat different: the main thrusts of TPS are Just in Time, the hands-on, shop-floor approach and profitable IE; that of TQM is systematic management (synthesizing and standardizing); and those of TPM are the pursuit of optimal conditions, the hands-on, shop-floor approach, and going back to first principles.

The three systems also emphasise different aspects of training and development. TPS tries to develop multi-skilled operators who can move freely between processes to accommodate fluctuations in demand; TQM (TQC) focuses on training them in QC tools and other workplace management techniques; and TPM concentrates on developing maintenance knowledge and skills, knowledge of equipment structure and functions, and other forms of engineering expertise, in order to develop confident operators who are thoroughly conversant with their equipment.

The three systems are also organised and managed somewhat differently. TPS is operated through the company’s existing organisational structure, with improvement experts stationed on the shop floor to make sure the system runs smoothly; TQM is characterised by policy management and QC circles; and TPM is distinguished firstly by its use of a matrix-type organisation formed from the specialist sub-committees responsible for each pillar, in conjunction with a pyramid of overlapping teams, and secondly by the highly structured, step-by-step way in which the activities are managed.

The final main difference between the three systems is their top objective – zero inventory in the case of TPS, ppm-order quality control in the case of TQM, and zero losses (zero accidents, defects and breakdowns) in the case of TPM.

Since, as explained above, TPS, TQM and TPM each has a different set of features, it is not sufficient to choose one system and ignore the others. To maximise production efficiency, all three methods should ideally be implemented in combination. However, establishing and implementing any one of the systems requires a huge amount of perseverance and effort, so each company should decide which is the most appropriate for its particular circumstances and introduce that one first, bringing in the others later if required.

6. The 12-Step TPM Development Programme

Senior managers are sometimes impatient for their TPM programme to kick off, but there is a lot more to developing the 8 Pillars than just deciding to go ahead. The preparatory phase of the 12-Step TPM Development Programme (Steps 1-5, shown in Table 1.3) is extremely important, and generally takes between 3 to 6 months depending on the size of the company. Thorough organisational preparations and TPM briefings for everyone in the company from senior managers to front-line employees are essential for the success of the TPM programme. Just as with the conceptual design of a product, only sound preparation and planning will ensure a good result.

Chapter 3 explains the ideas behind this preparatory phase and gives some practical advice on how to carry it out.

7. The Spread of TPM, and its Benefits

7.1 TPM in All Types of Industry

As explained in Section 2 of this chapter, TPM began life at Denso (Nippon Denso at the time) and was taken up throughout the automobile industry and then the automobile component industry, principally in companies within the Toyota group. It then spread successively to the chemical industry, the semiconductor and electronics industries, and the food industry. Since 1971, TPM has reached out into every type of industry, and by 2002 the total number of sites winning TPM awards had risen to 1,639.

7.2 The Aims of TPM in Different Industries and Production Regimes

The production regimes, processes and equipment used in typical process industries such as chemical, oil and steel naturally differ from those used in typical fabrication and assembly industries such as industrial machinery, automobiles and electrical products. They even differ between different industries in one or other of these sectors. When setting goals for your TPM programme, it is important to have a clear understanding of the aims of TPM in your particular industry and production regime, as shown in Table 1.5.

7.3 The TPM Awards and TPM Levels 1, 2 and 3

Outstandingly successful TPM sites that pass the official audit receive a TPM Award. Focusing on the award as a goal enables a site to get everyone pulling in the same direction and raises the standard of the site’s TPM programme. As Figure 1.20 shows, a site may apply for one of seven different awards depending on its size and the stage it has reached in its TPM journey.

The complete TPM programme is split into three levels; Level 1 covers everything up to and including the Award for TPM Excellence (First Category); Level 2 extends from there up to the end of the Special Award for TPM Achievement, and Level 3 extends from there right up to the end of the Award for World Class TPM Achievement.

7.4 The Concepts of TPM

In TPM Level 1, we concentrate on reducing production cost, building highly profitable manufacturing facilities by strengthening the capabilities of the production floor and eliminating and preventing any factors standing in the way of reducing this cost. The principal aim of TPM Level 2, by contrast, is to reduce total product cost. By doing this, we try to create a highly profitable production and business operation and give ourselves a competitive edge over rival companies in our industry. In TPM Level 3, we continue to apply the thinking of TPM Level 2 while striving to establish the conditions necessary for our companies to continue to flourish in today’s highly-volatile business environment. In addition to operating as profitably as possible with existing sales volumes, we try to build a profitable business framework that continually expands sales and always utilizes the available resources as efficiently as possible.

Note that this Instructor Course Manual focuses mainly on Level 1.

7.5 Development in Number of TPM Prizewinning Sites

As Figure 1.21 shows, the overall number of TPM prizewinning sites surged at the beginning of the 1990s, while the proportion of sites winning higher-level awards, such as the Award for Excellence in Consistent TPM Commitment and the Special Award for TPM Achievement, began to rise towards the end of that decade. Meanwhile, the number of award-winning sites located outside Japan has risen dramatically and continues to do so.

7.6 Typical TPM Benefits

Figure 1.22 gives examples of the excellent results achieved by particular sites from the four industries that have the best track record of introducing TPM. With the exception of the chemical manufacturer, which received the Award for Excellence in Consistent TPM Commitment (1st Category), all the sites received the Award for TPM Excellence in the 1st or 2nd Category. These sites’ TPM programmes were very successful and delivered impressive results in all of the indicators of PQCDSM (productivity, quality, cost, delivery, safety and morale).

Continue to Chapter 2
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