The origins of TQM and TPM are rather different from that of TPS. TQM evolved in Japan from the discipline of SQC (Statistical Quality Control), which had originally been introduced from the USA, while TPM evolved in a similar way, from Preventive Maintenance and Productive Maintenance.
TPS, TQM and TPM focus on different aspects of the production operation. While TPS concentrates on inventory (D: Delivery), and TQM looks mainly at the quality of products and work (Q: Quality), TPM homes in on equipment, labour and unit consumption losses (C: Cost). The three approaches are somewhat different: the main thrusts of TPS are Just in Time, the hands-on, shop-floor approach and profitable IE; that of TQM is systematic management (synthesizing and standardizing); and those of TPM are the pursuit of optimal conditions, the hands-on, shop-floor approach, and going back to first principles.
The three systems also emphasise different aspects of training and development. TPS tries to develop multi-skilled operators who can move freely between processes to accommodate fluctuations in demand; TQM (TQC) focuses on training them in QC tools and other workplace management techniques; and TPM concentrates on developing maintenance knowledge and skills, knowledge of equipment structure and functions, and other forms of engineering expertise, in order to develop confident operators who are thoroughly conversant with their equipment.
The three systems are also organised and managed somewhat differently. TPS is operated through the company’s existing organisational structure, with improvement experts stationed on the shop floor to make sure the system runs smoothly; TQM is characterised by policy management and QC circles; and TPM is distinguished firstly by its use of a matrix-type organisation formed from the specialist sub-committees responsible for each pillar, in conjunction with a pyramid of overlapping teams, and secondly by the highly structured, step-by-step way in which the activities are managed.
The final main difference between the three systems is their top objective – zero inventory in the case of TPS, ppm-order quality control in the case of TQM, and zero losses (zero accidents, defects and breakdowns) in the case of TPM.
Since, as explained above, TPS, TQM and TPM each has a different set of features, it is not sufficient to choose one system and ignore the others. To maximise production efficiency, all three methods should ideally be implemented in combination. However, establishing and implementing any one of the systems requires a huge amount of perseverance and effort, so each company should decide which is the most appropriate for its particular circumstances and introduce that one first, bringing in the others later if required.
6. The 12-Step TPM Development Programme
Senior managers are sometimes impatient for their TPM programme to kick off, but there is a lot more to developing the 8 Pillars than just deciding to go ahead. The preparatory phase of the 12-Step TPM Development Programme (Steps 1-5, shown in Table 1.3) is extremely important, and generally takes between 3 to 6 months depending on the size of the company. Thorough organisational preparations and TPM briefings for everyone in the company from senior managers to front-line employees are essential for the success of the TPM programme. Just as with the conceptual design of a product, only sound preparation and planning will ensure a good result.
Chapter 3 explains the ideas behind this preparatory phase and gives some practical advice on how to carry it out.
7. The Spread of TPM, and its Benefits
7.1 TPM in All Types of Industry
As explained in Section 2 of this chapter, TPM began life at Denso (Nippon Denso at the time) and was taken up throughout the automobile industry and then the automobile component industry, principally in companies within the Toyota group. It then spread successively to the chemical industry, the semiconductor and electronics industries, and the food industry. Since 1971, TPM has reached out into every type of industry, and by 2002 the total number of sites winning TPM awards had risen to 1,639.
7.2 The Aims of TPM in Different Industries and Production Regimes
The production regimes, processes and equipment used in typical process industries such as chemical, oil and steel naturally differ from those used in typical fabrication and assembly industries such as industrial machinery, automobiles and electrical products. They even differ between different industries in one or other of these sectors. When setting goals for your TPM programme, it is important to have a clear understanding of the aims of TPM in your particular industry and production regime, as shown in Table 1.5.
7.3 The TPM Awards and TPM Levels 1, 2 and 3
Outstandingly successful TPM sites that pass the official audit receive a TPM Award. Focusing on the award as a goal enables a site to get everyone pulling in the same direction and raises the standard of the site’s TPM programme. As Figure 1.20 shows, a site may apply for one of seven different awards depending on its size and the stage it has reached in its TPM journey.
The complete TPM programme is split into three levels; Level 1 covers everything up to and including the Award for TPM Excellence (First Category); Level 2 extends from there up to the end of the Special Award for TPM Achievement, and Level 3 extends from there right up to the end of the Award for World Class TPM Achievement.
7.4 The Concepts of TPM
In TPM Level 1, we concentrate on reducing production cost, building highly profitable manufacturing facilities by strengthening the capabilities of the production floor and eliminating and preventing any factors standing in the way of reducing this cost. The principal aim of TPM Level 2, by contrast, is to reduce total product cost. By doing this, we try to create a highly profitable production and business operation and give ourselves a competitive edge over rival companies in our industry. In TPM Level 3, we continue to apply the thinking of TPM Level 2 while striving to establish the conditions necessary for our companies to continue to flourish in today’s highly-volatile business environment. In addition to operating as profitably as possible with existing sales volumes, we try to build a profitable business framework that continually expands sales and always utilizes the available resources as efficiently as possible.
Note that this Instructor Course Manual focuses mainly on Level 1.
7.5 Development in Number of TPM Prizewinning Sites
As Figure 1.21 shows, the overall number of TPM prizewinning sites surged at the beginning of the 1990s, while the proportion of sites winning higher-level awards, such as the Award for Excellence in Consistent TPM Commitment and the Special Award for TPM Achievement, began to rise towards the end of that decade. Meanwhile, the number of award-winning sites located outside Japan has risen dramatically and continues to do so.
7.6 Typical TPM Benefits
Figure 1.22 gives examples of the excellent results achieved by particular sites from the four industries that have the best track record of introducing TPM. With the exception of the chemical manufacturer, which received the Award for Excellence in Consistent TPM Commitment (1st Category), all the sites received the Award for TPM Excellence in the 1st or 2nd Category. These sites’ TPM programmes were very successful and delivered impressive results in all of the indicators of PQCDSM (productivity, quality, cost, delivery, safety and morale).
Continue to Chapter 2