P-M Analysis Basics

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P dash M Analysis is a systematic Problem-Solving Philosophy for Chronic Losses. The term P-M Analysis comes from the following origin: P – Phenomena(non), Physical; M – Mechanism, Relationship (Machine, Man/Woman, Material, Method)

When To Use P-M Analysis?

Root Cause Analysis



Two Types of Problem Solving Techniques

Why is 5-why Analysis effective?

Example



Problem: No.1 conveyor stopped.

What is Actually happening (Phenomenon):

Overload and the fuse blew.

Why-1 Why was there an overload?
The bearing was not sufficiently lubricated.

Why-2 Why was is not lubricated sufficiently?
The lubricating pump was not pumping.

Why-3 Why was it not pumping sufficiently?
The shaft of the pump was worn and rattling.

Why-4 Why was the shaft of the pump was worn and rattling.
There was no strainer attached and metal scrap got in.

Why-5 Why was no strainer attached?

There are no checking rules.

Action taken for Root-Cause

Why

Answer (Observation)

Action

Why was there an overload?

The bearing was not not sufficiently lubricated.

Logical linkage is required

the bearing was replaced.

 

Why was is not lubricated sufficiently?

The lubricating pump was not pumping.

Logical linkage is required

The lubrication pump was checked.

Why was it not pumping sufficiently?

The shaft of the pump was worn and rattling.

The shaft of the pump was replaced.

Why was the shaft of the pump was worn and rattling.

There was no strainer attached and metal scrap got in.

The strainer was attached, and cleaned up lubrication tank.

Why was no strainer attached?

There are no checking rules.

Autonomous Maintenance standard has been developed.

How can we identify what is actually happening?

Problem

Do’s

* Identify specific problems, which is the deviation between our expectation and actually happening.

Don’ts

* Before identifying specific problems, jump to actions. * Talking with just feeling.

5-why analysis must be used when to identify “ Phenomenon” What is “Phenomenon”.

Phenomenon

Is (What is actually happening)

  1. The fact you observed with your eyes and numeric data.
  2. The fact without presumption

Is Not

Your own opinion, feeling.

5-Why Analysis vs. P-M Analysis



Features in P-M Analysis

P-M Analysis (Multiple-Path)

5-Why Analysis (Single-Path)

Phenomenon Statement (Analysis Start-Point)

An exact same step requires to identify “Phenomenon”.
Use 5W1H Analysis (Stratification Step)
5-Why Analysis requires highly to start the analysis at the specific phenomenon.

Logical Linkage
(The Linkage between Why and Why)

Describe All Possible factors.

In order to describe all possible factors, Recommend setting up “P-M Gap” Statement.

Describe clearly Why & Answer (because).

Verification Process

Identify and describe All Possibilities first, and then verify which factors can contribute to the above possibility (“Gap from Principle of Operation”)

-Identify “Gap” instead of “Why”

Before moving the next why, require to verify (capture) the evidence.
-You say “Why”, capture the “evidence”. -You can say “Because …”

Key Points for Use

Understand the differences of “Fish-Bone Analysis” and/or Why-Why Analysis
– 4M Analysis is Not a “Fish-Bone”

Show the “evidence” before moving the next why.

Who should use

The higher Team Leaders’ Level. – Since AM Step-4

All Employee
– Operators (Since AM Step-2)

P-M Analysis

What % of Problems can be solved by P-M Analysis

Steps of P-M Analysis



P-M Analysis Step

Activity

Key Learning

Step-1

Clarify the Phenomenon

Phenomenon Statement

Step-2

Examine in terms of Physical Principle Involved

P-M Gap

Step-3

Analyze Contributing Conditions

Principle of Operation

Step-4

Study the relationship between 4M’s
(Man (Skill), Machine, Material & Methods)

Machine Structure & Function Diagram

Step-5

Study of what the conditions must be

Optimal Conditions

Step-6

Study of investigation methods

Machine Diagnosis Technique & Measurements

Step-7

Find out All Potential Abnormalities

Step-8

Implement & Plan Countermeasures

P-M Analysis Story Board Layout

Problem-Solving Story by P-M Analysis

CAP-Do Cycle & P-M Analysis

CAP-Do Cycle Process

P-M Analysis Step

Check

1-1 Analyze the “Gap” between Target and Actual situation.

1-2 Prioritize No.1 Contributor as FI Theme (Topics)

1-3 Stratify Problem into Phenomenon

Step-1

Clarify the Phenomenon

Step-2

Examine in term of Physical Principle involved. (P-M Gap)

Analyze

2-1 Principle of Movement (Processing) -Identify the “Gap” between Principle of Processing and Actual Conditions.
2-2 Develop P-M Analysis

-Step-1 to Step-7
* Develop Investigation Plan

Step-3

Contribute Conditions

Step-4

Study the relationship between 4M’s

Step-5

Study of what the condition must be (Optimal Condition)

Step-6

Study of investigation method

Step-7

Point out Abnormal Conditions

Plan

3-1 Develop Action Plan
3-2 Follow up the progress of actions

Step-8

Implementation and plan of improvement

Do

Review

4-1 Take an action for each cause and Root- Cause
4-2 Evaluate the effectiveness of each action by OPL

4-3 Verify the result in 3 months (90 days) 4-4 Feedback the points of sustaining (maintaining)

* Review the Results (Benefit)

 

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