Distinguishing between the Toyota Production System (TPS) and Lean Manufacturing is challenging. The TPS is often considered the original lean manufacturing model, its Western equivalent. While these terms are frequently interchanged, subtle variances in their conceptual bases and application merit attention. Let’s dig in!
The Toyota Production System epitomizes Toyota’s managerial philosophy and operational culture. Utilized extensively within the Toyota family—Toyota Motor Company, Denso, Aichi Steel, and Toyota Auto Body, to name a few—it forms the backbone of both their manufacturing and administrative processes.
The conceptual evolution of TPS can be traced back to Toyota’s founder, Sakichi Toyoda. Toyota’s ceaseless pursuit of improvement is remarkable, allowing it to evolve continually, with Denso outperforming even Toyota in leveraging TPS.
Daimler and other non-Toyota organizations have integrated and adapted TPS principles but had to opt for a different nomenclature due to competitive considerations. Hence, John Krafcik, in his master’s thesis at MIT, coined “lean manufacturing,” a term that has stuck since its popularization in “The Machine that Changed the World” by Womack et al. Despite numerous rebranding attempts, lean continues to be a potent term in the industrial domain.
Divergence in Content
TPS and Lean manufacturing exhibit variances in content, reflecting the dynamic evolution both within and outside of Toyota. Toyota is always open to external inspirations, with many TPS concepts borrowed from various sources like Ford, Junkers, etc. Toyota excels in testing ideas, assimilating the effective ones, and shedding the less effective ones.
For instance, Waste (Muda) is more pronounced in the West, even adding an eighth type of waste, “unused human creativity.” While Value Stream Mapping is a lean cornerstone, at Toyota, it’s a less standardized tool called Material and Information Flow Analysis. The western 5S becomes 4S at Toyota, and Kata, although popularized in the book “Toyota Kata,” is relatively unknown at Toyota.
The list of differences is extensive and continues to grow, reflecting the ongoing developments in the lean methodology.
Philosophical and Practical Disparities
TPS and Lean differ not just in their content but also in their applications, primarily due to the philosophical divergence between Toyota’s approach and the Western approach. At Toyota, TPS is ingrained in every employee’s routine, forming the company’s foundational philosophy.
Contrarily, Western organizations often rely on external consultants for Lean implementation. Though beneficial in many ways, this approach occasionally creates a disconnect between the implementing consultant and the actual operators.
The Western lean methodology often leans towards utilizing tools and methods instead of laying a solid foundation based on principles. While the tools provide quick results, a cultural shift requires patient and persistent efforts.
In many Western companies, Lean is seen as a toolbox that can be purchased and delegated down the hierarchy. However, an effective Lean strategy must begin at the top, with respect for people forming a critical element.
While there are Western companies that have successfully incorporated Lean principles, it’s evident that several others need to realize their full potential. By bringing Lean’s philosophical underpinnings to the fore, we can steer more organizations in the right direction. It’s time to reinforce your Lean manufacturing principles and revamp your industry!
Path to Sustainable Improvement: Embrace the Principles
One of the recurring challenges many Western firms face is maintaining the momentum of Lean initiatives. It often stems from a narrow focus on superficial quick fixes over systemic change. A widespread example is the overemphasis on 5S workshops while neglecting the broader cultural transformation needed to sustain improvements.
Lean isn’t merely a tool to be employed but a philosophy deeply embedded in the organizational fabric. While the practical tools of Lean (5S, Kaizen, Value Stream Mapping, etc.) are undeniably valuable, their effectiveness is contingent on a supportive, people-centred culture.
Leadership: An Integral Element of Lean Success
A primary roadblock to Lean success is a lack of leadership engagement. In too many instances, Lean is relegated to lower levels of the organization while leadership remains distant from the Lean processes. Yet, it’s precisely at the top where Lean must start, with values such as respect for people at the core.
Unfortunately, a culture of continuous improvement is often sacrificed in the name of cost-saving. Supervisors on the shop floor need more time and resources for improvement initiatives, leading to missed opportunities and stagnation.
Conclusion: The Lean Journey is Worthwhile
While the challenges of Lean implementation are significant, the benefits it can yield make the journey worthwhile. Companies such as Trumpf, ABB Stotz-Kontakt, and Kärcher have successfully realized the potential of Lean principles, demonstrating the practical feasibility of the Lean journey.
Indeed, plenty of skilled consultants can provide valuable guidance on this journey. However, the ultimate success of Lean relies heavily on the organization’s willingness to embrace the Lean philosophy holistically.
Although the distance between the current reality and the Lean ideal might seem daunting, it’s important to remember that every journey begins with a single step. So, step up, embrace the core principles of Lean, and start your transformative journey today!