1. QA vs QC
QA: Ensuring product/service quality through planned activities.
QC: Verifying adherence to quality standards.
2. Audit vs Inspection
Audit: Systematic evaluation against set criteria.
Inspection: Checking conformance to requirements.
3. Defect vs Defective
Defect: Non-conformance causing customer dissatisfaction.
Defective: A unit with one or more defects.
4. DPMO vs PPM
DPMO: Defects per million opportunities.
PPM: Number of defective parts per million produced.
5. Sample vs Population
Sample: Subset of a population.
Population: Total group of interest.
6. COO vs COPO
COO: All costs linked to product/service quality.
COPO: Costs arising from defects and nonconformities.
7. Rework vs Repair
Rework: Making a non-conforming product meet requirements.
Repair: Making it acceptable for intended use.
8. Document vs Record
Document: Plan on how something should be done.
Record: Account of something done.
9. SOP vs WI
SOP: Guide outlining a task’s purpose and process.
WI: Detailed instructions for a task.
10. APQP vs PPAP
APQP: Ensuring new product quality through structured planning.
PPAP: Standardized approval process for new production parts.
11. ISO vs IATF
ISO: NGO that creates international standards.
IATF: Automotive organizations creating quality standards.
12. Instrument vs Equipment
Instrument: Measures machine data.
Equipment: The machine processing the work.
13. Deviation vs Concession
Deviation: Pre-realization deviation permission.
Concession: Using a non-conforming product/service.
14. Corrective vs Preventive Action
Corrective: Addressing occurred nonconformity.
Preventive: Preventing potential nonconformity.
15. Check Sheet vs Check List
Check Sheet: Real-time data collection.
Checklist: Ensuring step completion.
16. Innovation vs Improvement
Innovation: Creating something new.
Improvement: Enhancing existing elements.
17. CAPA vs RCA
CAPA: Addressing process issues.
RCA: Identifying problem root causes.
18. CpK vs PpK
CpK & PpK: Process capability measures.
19. TPM vs TQM
TPM: Continuous maintenance strategy involving everyone.
TQM: Philosophy of continuous improvement and customer satisfaction.
20. Verification vs Validation
Verification: Checking regulatory compliance.
Validation: Ensuring customer needs are met.
21. Lean vs Six Sigma
Lean: Focus on customer value and flow enhancement.
Six Sigma: Reducing variation using statistics.
22. Value Added vs Non-Value Added
Value Added: Customer sees worth.
Non-Value Added: No additional customer value.
23. Risk vs Opportunity
Risk: Uncertainty’s effect on expected outcomes.
Opportunity: Positive risk side.
24. Process vs Product Audit
Process Audit: Assessing organizational processes.
Product Audit: Assessing individual products.
25. TQM vs QMS
TQM: Philosophy emphasizing continuous improvement.
QMS: Set processes ensuring consistent high-quality products/services.
26. VOC vs VOP
VOC: Customer needs and requirements.
VOP: Process performance communication.
27. Process Stability vs Capability
Stability: Process consistency.
Capability: Meeting specifications.
28. Data vs Information
Data: Raw, unorganized facts.
Information: Contextual, analyzed data.
29. Efficiency vs Effectiveness
Efficiency: Doing the right things.
Effectiveness: Doing things correctly.
30. Continuous vs Continual Improvement
Continuous: Uninterrupted enhancement.
Continual: Phased improvement with intervals.