Project Management Tools & Techniques. Part 1

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What is a Project?

A PROJECT is…a sequence of Unique Complex Activities

  • having a Specific Purpose
  • that Must be completed by a Specific Time
  • using Resources
  • according to Agreed Performance

Characteristics of Projects

  • Inter-related Tasks
  • In Some Way Unique
  • Concerned With Change
  • No Practice Or Rehearsal
  • Defined Outcomes
  • A Definite Start and Finish
  • Involve People and Resources

PROJECT MANAGEMENT TRIANGLE

Advantage of Project Management

5 Steps of Project Management: Tools & Techniques

  1. Appraisal Steering Comm
  • Project Selection
  • Project Strategy
  1. Definition Project Mgr
  • Stakeholder Analysis
  • Team & Organization
  • Charter  / Brief Project Team
  • High Level Plan Project Team
  1. Planning Project Team
  • Kick-off Meeting
  • Work Plan & Responsibilities
  • Risk Analysis
  1. Control Extended Team
  • Structured Agenda
  • Status of Work Plan
  • Actions List
  • Risk Management Plan
  • Meeting Evaluation
  • Scope Change Log
  • KPI’s
  1. Closure / Review Project Team
  • Project Evaluation
  • Lessons Learned

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 1: APPRAISAL – Project Selection

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 1: APPRAISAL – Project Selection Matrix

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 1: APPRAISAL – Project Strategy

  • Brainstorm a list of alternative Project / Technical strategies for implementing the selected project.
  • For each strategy: Will it meet the Time, Performance, Cost, & Scope targets?
  • Do a SWOT analysis on each Strategy
  • Use a Selection Matrix to rank the alternatives

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Stakeholder Analysis: What?

  • What is a Stakeholder?
    • Any individual, group or organization with an interest in the outcome of a project and who is:
      • Affected by the project positively or negatively
      • Able to influence the project in a positive or negative way.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Stakeholder Analysis: Why?

  • Why do a Stakeholder Analysis? … To:
    • Start communication flow with the Project Sponsors & Stakeholders, some of whom may have some pertinent  background information.
    • Develop an understanding as to which Stakeholders are key  to support the project, and which are not.
    • Ensure the Project Leader and the stakeholders have the same understanding of the project and measures of success and to get the key stakeholders buy-in of the project brief.
    • Identify potential conflicts and risks that could jeopardize the project.
    • Identify groups that should be encouraged to participate in different stages of the activity cycle.
    • Develop a proactive communication plan for reporting project progress to the various interested/involved parties

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Stakeholder Analysis: How?

  • Identify Stakeholders
  • Identify Needs and Expectations
    • Conduct Stakeholders Interviews
    • Have major Stakeholders review Brief
    • Determine what they need from the project
    • Determine what they expect from the project
  • Manage the Needs and Expectations
    • May require adjustments to Project Brief
    • Establish communication mechanism for each group of Stakeholders

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Stakeholder Interviews

  1. What for you would be the best possible outcome for this project?
  2. What do you see as the key benefits for this project (for yourself, for others)?
  3. What obstacles do you see in the way of the success of this project?
  4. Are there any other things I should know about that might affect the outcome of this project?
  5. What haven’t I asked you about that I should have?
  6. In your opinion, what is the highest priority for this project: Time, Cost, or Performance?

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Stakeholder Analysis Template

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Stakeholder Analysis Matrix

EXERCISE 1

  • Introduce Scenario
  • Identify Stakeholders
  • Determine what they need / want
  • Determine level of Interest & Influence
  • Map onto Stakeholder Matrix
  • Identify Team Leader for today

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Team and Organization

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: Team and Organization – Template

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION Team & Organization – Project Team

WHO SHOULD BE ON THE PROJECT TEAM ?

  • Individuals / Functions that:
    • Have to spend significant amounts of time on the project
    • Have a major impact on the success of the project
    • Have a major impact on the timeline
    • Will feel the pain if the project fails, reward if the project succeeds
    • Have the knowledge and authority to be accountable for delivering the phase(s) of the project to which they are assigned.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Team & Organization – Project Team Roles

  • Responsible for delivering the project on time, in budget and

to the agreed performance standards

  • Accountable to the stakeholders
  • Responsible for coordinating resources and project scheduling

 

  • Right hand to the Project Leader
  • Responsible for delivering the technical areas of the project
  • Responsible for ensuring the effective use of  Project Management tools
  • Responsible for promoting the efficient flow of communication through the team.

 

  • Responsible for delivering the project in their assigned areas
  • Responsible for coordinating resources and project scheduling in their assigned areas

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Charter or Brief

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Charter or Brief: Deliverable

Deliverable :

  • Any measurable, tangible, verifiable item that must be produced to complete the project or part of the project
  • Used several key places in the Project Brief:
    • OBJECTIVE includes Project Deliverables
    • MILESTONES include interim Deliverables

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Charter or Brief: Objectives

 SMART OBJECTIVES

  • S  Specific
  • M  Measurable
  • A  Agreed
  • R  Realistic &  Relevant
  • T  Time

Total of all of these elements is often is spread throughout the brief

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Charter or Brief: Objective

OBJECTIVE :

  • Answers the following questions:
    • What is the desired outcome of the PROJECT?
    • How will you know when you achieve it?
    • A statement of results to  be achieved, in terms of quality, quantity and / or time.
    • May includes both concrete deliverables and behavioral outcomes.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Charter or Brief: Scope

SCOPE :

  • The bounded set of verifiable end products, or outputs, which the project team undertakes to provide to the project sponsor.
  • Contains:
    • Boundaries
    • What is in the project?
    • What is not?
    • Key outputs

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Charter or Brief: Milestones

Milestone

  • A significant event during the course of the project, representing a major deliverable
  • A marker or signpost in the project
  • Is NOT a task or activity
  • It IS the outcome of a task/activity or series of tasks/activities
  • Often represents “release” point to enable another phase of the project

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – KPI’s

Key Performance Indicators (“KPI”)

  • Measures connected directly with the key Project objectives
  • Determined at the beginning of the project.
  • During the project, KPI’s are tracked and used to:
    • Report progress against the objectives.
    • Provide the basis for project management trade-off decisions
  • At project completion, these KPIs are used to:
    • Confirm the acceptability of the project and its product by the project’s stakeholders as being “successful”

EXERCISE 2

  • Objectives
  • Key Performance Indicators

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – High Level Plan & Work Breakdown Structure

  • Highest or Top Level of the Work Plan is:
    • Also know as Level 1 or PHASE
    • Represents the “How” of the Work Plan
    • Is the Strategic Level – the backbone of the Work Plan
    • Defines the “buckets” of activities which will be used to manage the project
    • Is set up by the Project Team during Project Definition step

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – High Level Plan Work Breakdown Structure

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – High Level Plan: How to Organize Top Level Plan

  • Consider:
    • Grouping by Resource Type
      • Much easier to create and track – more natural
      • Enables chain of accountability
    • Grouping by Time Constraints
      • If portions of the project are on significantly different timelines from each other, use these portions as the Project Phases or Top Level Plan
  • Often a Combination of Both

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – High Level Plan: “Resource” Model EXAMPLE

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – High Level Plan: Building Block” Model EXAMPLE

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – High Level Plan: “Building Block” Model – INNOVATION

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – High Level Plan: Resource” Model -INNOVATION

  1. Brainstorm the following question:

“What are all of the major buckets of activity required to accomplish the project ?”

  1. Review the brainstormed list of Project Phases.
    1. Group related activities (Can these related activities be combined under 1 heading?)
    2. For each item on the brainstormed list, is it a stand-alone major activity, or is it part of something bigger?
  1. Revise the Phases in accordance with findings in Step 2.
  2. Run the completeness test . . .

PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – High Level Plan: Completeness Test

  • Are all identified Phases together sufficient to complete the project?
    • When all of the identified Phases are complete, is the project complete?
    • Is anything missing?
  • Is each identified Phase necessary to complete the project?
  • Can the Start/End of each Phase be clearly defined?
  • Does each Phase have a deliverable?
  • Is there 1 (and only 1) Project Team member who can be held accountable for each identified Phase?

EXERCISE 3

  • High Level Work Plan
  • Decide the key buckets of activity (Phases) required to complete the project.
  • Record the identified Phases (VERB + NOUN)
  • Assign Project Team Members for each Phase
  • Assign timing
Project Management Tools & Techniques. Part 2

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