What is a Project?
A PROJECT is…a sequence of Unique Complex Activities
- having a Specific Purpose
- that Must be completed by a Specific Time
- using Resources
- according to Agreed Performance
Characteristics of Projects
- Inter-related Tasks
- In Some Way Unique
- Concerned With Change
- No Practice Or Rehearsal
- Defined Outcomes
- A Definite Start and Finish
- Involve People and Resources
PROJECT MANAGEMENT TRIANGLE
Advantage of Project Management
5 Steps of Project Management: Tools & Techniques
- Appraisal – Steering Comm
- Project Selection
- Project Strategy
- Definition – Project Mgr
- Stakeholder Analysis
- Team & Organization
- Charter / Brief – Project Team
- High Level Plan – Project Team
- Planning – Project Team
- Kick-off Meeting
- Work Plan & Responsibilities
- Risk Analysis
- Control – Extended Team
- Structured Agenda
- Status of Work Plan
- Actions List
- Risk Management Plan
- Meeting Evaluation
- Scope Change Log
- Closure / Review – Project Team
- Project Evaluation
- Lessons Learned
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 1: APPRAISAL – Project Selection
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 1: APPRAISAL – Project Selection Matrix
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 1: APPRAISAL – Project Strategy
- Brainstorm a list of alternative Project / Technical strategies for implementing the selected project.
- For each strategy: Will it meet the Time, Performance, Cost, & Scope targets?
- Do a SWOT analysis on each Strategy
- Use a Selection Matrix to rank the alternatives
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Stakeholder Analysis: What?
- What is a Stakeholder?
- Any individual, group or organization with an interest in the outcome of a project and who is:
- Affected by the project positively or negatively
- Able to influence the project in a positive or negative way.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Stakeholder Analysis: Why?
- Why do a Stakeholder Analysis? … To:
- Start communication flow with the Project Sponsors & Stakeholders, some of whom may have some pertinent background information.
- Develop an understanding as to which Stakeholders are key to support the project, and which are not.
- Ensure the Project Leader and the stakeholders have the same understanding of the project and measures of success and to get the key stakeholders buy-in of the project brief.
- Identify potential conflicts and risks that could jeopardize the project.
- Identify groups that should be encouraged to participate in different stages of the activity cycle.
- Develop a proactive communication plan for reporting project progress to the various interested/involved parties
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Stakeholder Analysis: How?
- Identify Stakeholders
- Identify Needs and Expectations
- Conduct Stakeholders Interviews
- Have major Stakeholders review Brief
- Determine what they need from the project
- Determine what they expect from the project
- Manage the Needs and Expectations
- May require adjustments to Project Brief
- Establish communication mechanism for each group of Stakeholders
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Stakeholder Interviews
- What for you would be the best possible outcome for this project?
- What do you see as the key benefits for this project (for yourself, for others)?
- What obstacles do you see in the way of the success of this project?
- Are there any other things I should know about that might affect the outcome of this project?
- What haven’t I asked you about that I should have?
- In your opinion, what is the highest priority for this project: Time, Cost, or Performance?
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Stakeholder Analysis Template
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Stakeholder Analysis Matrix
- Introduce Scenario
- Identify Stakeholders
- Determine what they need / want
- Determine level of Interest & Influence
- Map onto Stakeholder Matrix
- Identify Team Leader for today
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Team and Organization
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: Team and Organization – Template
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Team & Organization – Project Team
WHO SHOULD BE ON THE PROJECT TEAM ?
- Individuals / Functions that:
- Have to spend significant amounts of time on the project
- Have a major impact on the success of the project
- Have a major impact on the timeline
- Will feel the pain if the project fails, reward if the project succeeds
- Have the knowledge and authority to be accountable for delivering the phase(s) of the project to which they are assigned.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Team & Organization – Project Team Roles
- Responsible for delivering the project on time, in budget and
to the agreed performance standards
- Accountable to the stakeholders
- Responsible for coordinating resources and project scheduling
- Right hand to the Project Leader
- Responsible for delivering the technical areas of the project
- Responsible for ensuring the effective use of Project Management tools
- Responsible for promoting the efficient flow of communication through the team.
- Responsible for delivering the project in their assigned areas
- Responsible for coordinating resources and project scheduling in their assigned areas
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Charter or Brief
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Charter or Brief: Deliverable
- Any measurable, tangible, verifiable item that must be produced to complete the project or part of the project
- Used several key places in the Project Brief:
- OBJECTIVE includes Project Deliverables
- MILESTONES include interim Deliverables
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Charter or Brief: Objectives
- S Specific
- M Measurable
- A Agreed
- R Realistic & Relevant
- T Time
Total of all of these elements is often is spread throughout the brief
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Charter or Brief: Objective
- Answers the following questions:
- What is the desired outcome of the PROJECT?
- How will you know when you achieve it?
- A statement of results to be achieved, in terms of quality, quantity and / or time.
- May includes both concrete deliverables and behavioral outcomes.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Charter or Brief: Scope
- The bounded set of verifiable end products, or outputs, which the project team undertakes to provide to the project sponsor.
- What is in the project?
- What is not?
- Key outputs
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – Charter or Brief: Milestones
- A significant event during the course of the project, representing a major deliverable
- A marker or signpost in the project
- Is NOT a task or activity
- It IS the outcome of a task/activity or series of tasks/activities
- Often represents “release” point to enable another phase of the project
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – KPI’s
Key Performance Indicators (“KPI”)
- Measures connected directly with the key Project objectives
- Determined at the beginning of the project.
- During the project, KPI’s are tracked and used to:
- Report progress against the objectives.
- Provide the basis for project management trade-off decisions
- At project completion, these KPIs are used to:
- Confirm the acceptability of the project and its product by the project’s stakeholders as being “successful”
- Key Performance Indicators
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – High Level Plan & Work Breakdown Structure
- Highest or Top Level of the Work Plan is:
- Also know as Level 1 or PHASE
- Represents the “How” of the Work Plan
- Is the Strategic Level – the backbone of the Work Plan
- Defines the “buckets” of activities which will be used to manage the project
- Is set up by the Project Team during Project Definition step
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – High Level Plan Work Breakdown Structure
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – High Level Plan: How to Organize Top Level Plan
- Grouping by Resource Type
- Much easier to create and track – more natural
- Enables chain of accountability
- Grouping by Time Constraints
- If portions of the project are on significantly different timelines from each other, use these portions as the Project Phases or Top Level Plan
- Often a Combination of Both
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – High Level Plan: “Resource” Model EXAMPLE
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – High Level Plan: “Building Block” Model EXAMPLE
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – High Level Plan: “Building Block” Model – INNOVATION
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – High Level Plan: “Resource” Model -INNOVATION
- Brainstorm the following question:
“What are all of the major buckets of activity required to accomplish the project ?”
- Review the brainstormed list of Project Phases.
- Group related activities (Can these related activities be combined under 1 heading?)
- For each item on the brainstormed list, is it a stand-alone major activity, or is it part of something bigger?
- Revise the Phases in accordance with findings in Step 2.
- Run the completeness test . . .
PROJECT MANAGEMENT – Step 2: DEFINITION – High Level Plan: Completeness Test
- Are all identified Phases together sufficient to complete the project?
- When all of the identified Phases are complete, is the project complete?
- Is anything missing?
- Is each identified Phase necessary to complete the project?
- Can the Start/End of each Phase be clearly defined?
- Does each Phase have a deliverable?
- Is there 1 (and only 1) Project Team member who can be held accountable for each identified Phase?
Project Management Tools & Techniques. Part 2
- High Level Work Plan
- Decide the key buckets of activity (Phases) required to complete the project.
- Record the identified Phases (VERB + NOUN)
- Assign Project Team Members for each Phase
- Assign timing