PM Element 2. Zero Breakdown Activities
The biggest challenge during the TPM implementation is to change the tradesmen mind set from the reactive approach (firemen) to a proactive approach (machine physician).
The first step is to explain that a repair does not finish when they fix the machine, but it finishes when they take action to prevent the recurrence.
During the beginning of TPM process, most factories have a high number of breakdowns, and the tradesmen are only focused on fixing the breakdowns.
Because the tradesmen (firefighters) are only focused on preventing breakdowns (fight the fire), they are not preventing the recurrence of breakdowns.
Some factories have a difficulty in identifying which breakdown they need to prioritize to analyze utilizing 5 Why technique.
In the beginning because of the high number of breakdowns it is important to establish some criteria to identify the major breakdowns in the factory, and analyze these. Once the number of breakdown have been reduced, the criteria will need to be tightened, until you can analyze all breakdowns in the factory.
To start first analyze repetitive breakdowns, at least the #1 contributor in each line or area. If there there are some resources available you can look for upward trends or downtime over 2 hours.
Breakdown Meeting Flowchart
Maintenance Technicians perform a daily meeting to analyze all last day breakdowns.
After a breakdown meeting the tradesmen need to be able to answer these questions:
- How many breakdowns did your area have in the last 24 hours?
- How many breakdowns did every line in the #1 contributor equipment have?
- How many repetitive breakdowns did every line in the #1 contributor equipment have?
- Is any equipment showing an upward trend?
- Is the upward trend caused by a repetitive breakdown?
- How many breakdowns were over 2 hours?
- Are the tradesmen performing the breakdown analysis on time? Which one is late? Why?
- What temporary countermeasures have the previous day breakdowns generated?
- The action plan for temporary countermeasures is on time? Which one is late? Why?
- Are the On The Job training for the previous day completed? Which one is late? Why?
Remember: Repetitive Breakdowns always need to be analyzed.
Every month you must at least perform a breakdown analysis of the number 1 contributor at the line, process or area.
Number 1 contributor means the component with the major number of repetitive breakdown at the equipment.
Breakdown process, record, analysis and M-P sheet
BREAKDOWN ANALYSIS BOARD
A typical board to present a breakdown analysis would contain:
- Team Identification
- Line Layout
- Number of Breakdowns by:
- Principle of Operation
- 5 Why Analysis
- Action Plan to implement the countermeasures
- One Point Lessons or pictures about the actions
Never start the 5 Why if you do not know the principle of operation for the equipment and for the component.
Suggestion for a Board Layout
BREAKDOWN ANALYSIS BOARD
A monthly line review can be performed by tradesmen. The objectives for this activity are:
1) Monitor line Performance (OEE)
2) Monitor the losses in the line
3) Identify root cause for breakdown #1 contributor
4) Monitor MTBF and MTTR
5) Monitor F-Tags Solving Percentage
6) Establish Actions to increase line efficiency.
The tradesmen need to build monthly boards with these information and present for the rest of team and the management.
Tradesmen will learn more about the breakdown analysis process and will increase their knowledge about the machines.
BREAKDOWN ANALYSIS PRESENTATION
After the presentation to the tradesmen, the cases would be presented at every line for the operators, so they can learn about the problems and at the same time, learn more about 5 Why analysis, and see which problems have been solved by the maintenance team, and which are the actions scheduled for the line.
After performing a breakdown analysis to identify the root cause, establish the countermeasures, and implement the actions, it is time to monitor the efficiency in preventing the recurrence of breakdowns. A tool for this is the Recurrence Matrix, where is possible monitor weekly if the breakdown reoccurred.
Cases of Zero Breakdown
After the implementation of the countermeasures, the breakdown is not supposed to reoccur. Using the Recurrence Matrix it is possible to monitor how many cases of Zero Breakdown the factory has.
Zero Breakdown means at least 90 days with zero breakdown in that component.
Number of equipment with Zero Breakdown
The next step is to monitor the number of equipment with Zero Breakdown. This will show the distribution of breakdowns in the factory and will help to identify the equipment with chronic problems.