Due to decreased warehouse space, consumer packaged goods companies are forced to have shorter production runs, which leads to increased number of changeovers.


Training Objectives and Expectations

  • To reduce C/O time by at least 50%;
  • To develop training material to roll out across all production areas.

Six major equipment losses

  • Major Stops
  • Minor Stops
  • Changeover Loss
  • Startup/Shutdown Loss
  • Speed Loss
  • Quality Loss

Definition “Changeover”

The time from when the last case of a run was produced to the first case of the next run.

Note: C/O loss and Start-Up Loss are closely related

Measure:  Time (mins)

Definition “Startup and shutdown loss”

The time required to reach ‘normal’ running condition after a changeover or beginning of the week, or after PM.  (Shutdown is the time taken to ramp down during a shutdown for C/O, PM, or end-of-week).

Note:  ‘Normal’ running condition is when the production machine reaches average efficiency.

Measure:  Time (mins)

Changeover vs. startup

Categories of changeover

External vs. internal

The 3 Components of C/O

7 Steps for Focused Improvements – Changeovers

Step 1: Form C/O Team

Step 2: Understand Present Status (Check)

Step 3: Time & Operation Analysis (Analyze)

Step 4: Plan Improvement Items (Plan)

Step 5: Implement Improvements (Do)

Step 6: Standardization

Step 7: Training

Step 1: Form C/O Team

  • Define the team members of the Focused Improvement (FI)
  • Set targets for C/O time reduction (50%)
  • Agree on a plan for C/O FI activities (who, what, when, where)

Step 2: Understand Present Status

  • Record actual Changeover on video for review in the boardroom
  • Use the “Time & Operation Analysis” worksheet to describe the actual (current) Changeover procedure
  • Use a stopwatch in a boardroom to review tape while filling in the worksheet

Step 3: Time & Operation Analysis

Step 3: Analyze Problem

  • Identify Internal changeover operations that can be performed during External changeover activities
  • Apply the S.E.N.D. methodology to all steps on the “Time & Operations Analysis” worksheet

S.E.N.D. Methodology

S.E.N.D. is a tool to help facilitate improvement (reduction) in Changeover time:

  • Simultaneously
  • Easier
  • Eliminate Number of Operations (or Steps)
  • Eliminate Distance between Operations (or Steps)



  • Perform tasks in parallel that were once done in series, at the same time vs. separately
  • Examples:
    • Tightening two thumbscrews at the same time
    • Bring all change-parts to the line simultaneously (on a cart for instance) vs. one-by-one



  • Modify a task such that it takes less time, materials/tools, or thought to perform.
  • Examples:
    • Eliminate the need for screwdrivers by using thumbscrews
    • Color code change-parts so it is clear which part goes with which size
    • Etch or Mark a change-over setting

Eliminate Number of Operations


  • Reduce the total number of tasks (operations) that are performed during the changeover
  • Examples:
    • Replace six (6) bolts with one (1) quick-release
    • Use a change-over cart (all change-parts and tools required for the job are on the cart)

Eliminate Distance Between Operations


  • Reduce the physical distance between tasks (operations) to eliminate unnecessary walking time
  • Examples:
    • Ensure all bolts or thumbscrews are physically accessible from one side of the equipment
    • Use a change-over cart to minimize walking back and forth from a change-part storage location

S.E.N.D. Summary


  • Often many tasks can be combined to achieve several components of S.E.N.D. (ideal):
  • Example:  Changeover Cart
    • Simultaneous because all parts are brought out at the same time
    • Easier because the cart is on wheels and parts don’t have to be carried
    • Number of steps reduced because obtaining change-parts is now a single step (vs. multiple trips)
    • Distance reduced because only need to make one trip for change-parts

Step 4: Plan Improvement Items

  • Develop an improvement implementation plan (who, what, when, where)
  • These are the actions resulting from the S.E.N.D. analysis on the “Time & Operations Analysis” worksheet

Step 5: Implement Improvements

  • Execute the improvement plan
  • Verify actions are effective
  • Collect detailed setup information (to be used in Step 6)

Step 6: Standardization

  • Develop standard set-up sheets
  • These sheets are to be used each time when performing the change-over
  • Specific information, documenting change-over steps, settings, locations (where the cart can be found), color schemes, etc.
  • Measure “after” changeover times and compare with “before” situation

Step 7: Training

  • Develop an activity board
  • Provide training sessions for new changeover process (track training records)

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *